Different Theories of Consciousness

 

As of today, general theories in the field of Consciousness in all around the world are as follows:

(A) Consciousness is not an independent quality but arose, in terms of conventional physical processes, as a natural evolutionary consequence of the biological adaptation of brains and nervous systems. This prevalent scientific view is that consciousness emerged as a property of complex biological computation during the course of evolution. Opinions vary as to when, where and how consciousness appeared, e.g. only recently in humans, or earlier in lower organisms. Consciousness as an evolutionary adaptation is commonly assumed to be epiphenomenal (i.e. a secondary effect without independent influence), and also illusory (largely constructing reality, rather than perceiving it. Nonetheless, consciousness is frequently argued to confer beneficial advantages to species. Overall, in this view, consciousness is not an intrinsic feature of the universe.

(B) Consciousness is a separate quality, distinct from physical actions and not controlled by physical laws, that has always been in the universe. Descartes’ ‘dualism’, religious viewpoints, and other spiritual approaches assume consciousness has been in the universe all along, e.g. as the ‘ground of being’, ‘creator’ or component of an omnipresent ‘God’. In this view consciousness can causally influence physical matter and human behavior, but has no basis or description in science. In another approach, panpsychism attributes consciousness to all matter, but without scientific identity or causal influence. Idealism contends consciousness is all that exists, the material world (and science) being an illusion. In all these views, consciousness lies outside science.

(C) Consciousness results from discrete physical events; such events have always existed in the universe as non-cognitive, proto-conscious events, these acting as part of precise physical laws not yet fully understood. Biology evolved a mechanism to orchestrate such events and to couple them to neuronal activity, resulting in meaningful, cognitive, conscious moments and thence also to causal control of behavior. These events are proposed specifically to be moments of quantum state reduction (intrinsic quantum “self-measurement”). Such events need not necessarily be taken as part of current theories of the laws of the universe, but should ultimately be scientifically describable. This is basically the type of view put forward, in very general terms, by the philosopher A.N. Whitehead [9,10] and also fleshed out in a scientific framework in the Penrose–Hameroff theory of ‘orchestrated objective reduction’ (‘Orch OR’). In the Orch OR theory, these conscious events are terminations of quantum computations in brain microtubules reducing by Diósi–Penrose ‘objective reduction’ (‘OR’), and having experiential qualities. In this view consciousness is an intrinsic feature of the action of the universe.

  • Source: Stuart Hameroff and Roger Penrose. Consciousness in the universe; review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory. Physics of Life Reviews 11 (2014) 39–78.

(D) Consciousness theory by M. A. Taheri     

The theoretical concept of Consciousness by Taheri is based on the following principle:

Principle – a hardware cannot create its own creation and conduction software. Hence, the software program of creation, conduction, and management of cosmos and its components (as a software section) must me formed through a different way. The creating factor of such a software which forms matter and energy, subsequently, is called “Consciousness”.

Creating software of energy and matter = an information field for a fundamental vibration to exist based on its program and plan.

Creating hardware of energy and matter = fundamental vibration and so on.

It is worth mentioning, based on this approach from a small particle to cosmos itself, each are considered as a separated hardware unit. In this regard, there must be a “Software Unit” behind the scene of each. Thus, according to this theoretical concept, the above mentioned “Software Unit” is “Consciousness”. The consciousness which governs the universe and embraces the particles and cosmos all at once.

According to this approach:

  • Consciousness is neither matter nor energy, but formation of matter and energy, events and physical laws are arising from consciousness.
  • Consciousness is universal and the material universe is resulted from it (material universes include: homogeneous and heterogeneous parallel universes, consecutive universes, adjacent universes and so on, which there is no physical path to those universes from our cosmos).
  • Consciousness is not definable by conventional science; but in “Modern Science” (conventional science + knowledge of awareness) and with the new terminology, it will be more tangible and definable. At the moment, it is only possible to investigate and scientifically study the effects of consciousness fields on human, plants, animals, cells, molecules, and micro-organisms. Such a study field can be a new scientific subject which we have made an attempt to introduce it.
  • Consciousness is an independent quality from the material universe (But, at the end, consciousness is not independent in its essence and it has been exported from another source which is beyond the scope on this discussion).
  • Consciousness is directing the cosmos and the cosmos is a virtual phenomenon and what we see is also virtual.
  • Consciousness is directing the ecosystem of cosmos, earth, evolution and etc.
  • Consciousness is an independent quality which exists in different levels (at least 5 different levels) and scopes such as constant and variable, positive and negative, cosmic-human and so on.
  • Consciousness directs life and all its manifestations in the cosmos.
  • Consciousness converts to matter and energy and conversely, it’s possible for matter and energy to convert to consciousness. Based on this and according to the picture below, there are three elements in the universe in one moment: Consciousness, Matter, and Energy.
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  • Consciousness exists in the universe in two general levels (types of consciousness levels based on general contrasts):
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  • Consciousness is a qualitative phenomenon in different levels:
  1. High Super Consciousness
  2. Super Consciousness
  3. Consciousness (+ & -)
  4. High Sub Consciousness
  5. Sub Consciousness
  • Consciousness is not “Data and Information”; but data and information results from Consciousness and is the interface between consciousness and energy/matter.
  • Consciousness is a qualitative factor and it’s not quantifiable, yet it forms all the quantitative aspects of the cosmos.
  • Consciousness is not definable via conventional science. But, it will be more understandable through “modern science” (conventional science + knowledge of consciousness) with a new terminology and definition. At present, its effect can be merely studied and experimented under the subject of effect of consciousness fields on human, plants, animals, cells, molecules, and micro-organisms. These research fields has been started under the modern science of “Sciencefact”.

Consciousness of human is the result of Cosmic Consciousness, and the human being is the creator of consciousness in its own level. Based on the principle of consciousness and information survival, consciousness created by the human being will not be degraded and lost.

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Consciousness of all alive beings is the result of Cosmic Consciousness. In other words, their programing related to awareness of life, etc. is transmitted to them through Cosmic Consciousness. Even if they create that awareness themselves, they must be programed for such a creation. This program is the result of Cosmic Consciousness.

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